The phenomena of microbiological contamination of the oil and natural gas environment represent a broad issue.
The negative effect of microorganisms is primarily associated with the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, leading to an increase in oil density, sulfur content and viscosity. These changes cause disruption in oil extraction and processing technology, bringing about significant economic losses. Problems also concern the ways crude oil is stored, products of its processing, drilling fluids, and natural gas.
In addition to lowering the content of hydrocarbons in crude oil, adverse activity of microorganisms causes corrosion of transmission installations (oil and gas pipelines) and the production of undesirable substances (H2S, polymers, organic acids, etc.) that affect the performance of oil and gas.